After several years of rapid development, lots of MAN technologies, such as optical Ethernet, MSTP (multi service platform), and POS (Packet Over SDH), overflows in MAN, meeting the network access needs of a large number of users in a short time. Initially, it is basically an access MAN that meets the need of accessing Internet. Over the past few years, Ethernet business services and direct public cloud access have been growing at a rate of two digits, without a stop trend. Because of the lower cost per bit and bandwidth scalability, the popularity of Ethernet is driven by unprecedented growth of network traffic. Video usage, mobility, transformation from TDM to IP network, cloud service, smart city and Internet of things (IoT) are the main factors contributing to this growth.
At present, the IP broadband MAN has reached a considerable scale, and its development mode has evolved to the three-dimensional integrated structure of network, technology and business. And the rapid growth of traffic does not mean that the income has increased year by year, but has increased the cost of network construction and maintenance. Global operators have begun to actively seek the technology that can increase network capacity, operation and maintenance efficiency on a large scale, and can provide multi-service supporting and reduce operation and maintenance costs at the same time. Maipu switch supports rich metropolitan Ethernet features that can be used to help operators build carrier-class Ethernet networks and provide a variety of Ethernet access services.
There are two main quantitative indexes for quality of service (QoS): one is the setup speed of the call and connection, including the End-to-end Delay and the delay change (Jitter); the other is the throughput of the network data. The main indexes of the throughput can indicate the available bandwidth size, and the throughput determines the flow of network transmission, related with the bandwidth, error rate, buffer capacity, processor capability, and other factors
The early Ethernet mainly carries data services in the LAN. The characteristics of the data service are the insensitivity to the delay. The retransmission mechanism of TCP can also tolerate the loss of a small number of packets in Ethernet, so it does not need the differential QoS guarantee. But for the carrier-class Ethernet technology, because it needs to carry integrated services, this kind of Best effort service which does not distinguish traffic types is difficult to guarantee the quality of service. The carrier-class Ethernet has two methods to realize QoS, that is, IntServ (integrated service architecture) and Diff-Serv (differentiated service architecture). Usually, we adopt the latter, and its implementation process includes flow classification, mapping, congestion control and queue scheduling.
Traditional Ethernet uses link aggregation and spanning tree protocol to protect. Link aggregation takes a lot of line and port resources, and it is not suitable for MAN. The recovery time of spanning tree protocol/rapid spanning tree protocol is second-class when the link fails, which is far greater than the carrier-class requirement 50ms. The carrier-class Ethernet technology can take certain measures to ensure that the switching time of the service is less than 50ms, such as the MPLS or EIPS technology.
Besides network-class protection, the node devices also use the redundancy technology, such as the high-end switching device with the dual-processor architecture, providing an active/standby switching function. It can quickly switch over when a failure occurs, and the switching time is generally in milliseconds without affecting the service of the user.
For carrier-class Ethernet, it is a very important work to ensure the security of the equipment and network. It is necessary to take some measures to prevent the illegal access for the system, which makes the equipment and network work improperly, and some malicious messages affect the normal supply of the service.
The security problem of traditional Ethernet has been solved by dividing into virtual network segments via the VLAN technology. However, with the development of Internet, in recent years, the network is often attacked by network viruses, such as worms and hackers. The whole network paralysis often occur, and the effective bandwidth of the legal users and the information security of users are difficult to be guaranteed. Therefore, when constructing carrier-class Ethernet, we must consider how to ensure the network security. A common Ethernet security solution is to filter the database through ACL (access control list) to filter illegal data; the port mirroring technology can copy the input and output traffic of any port to the specified port output, helping network managers monitor the network data content; some high-end network devices have powerful application aware and network-class auto immunity capability, and can automatically perceive and filter unsafe data flow to a certain extent.
Carrier-class Ethernet can provide a perfect network management, and can provide end-to-end unified network management capability, cluster management ability, stacking management, and visual graphics management. Besides the conventional configuration, monitoring, and user data sampling and analysis, the perfect NMS can automatically discover network failures, and can recover in time. It can automatically discover new service nodes and configure end-to-end services; the NMS can also measure end-to-end performance and control network operation in real time.
The Ethernet OAM mechanism based on E-LMI provides carrier-class fault and performance management methods. The device is plug-and-play, does not need complex configuration, and easy to be deployed quickly. The plug-and-play characteristics of the carrier-class Ethernet multi-service platform and the special network management platform not only improve the network and service management ability, but also improve the experience quality (QoE) of the operator in management and maintenance.
With the increasing demand for the service and bandwidth, service providers need to effectively expand network nodes to support higher capacity and win a competitive market by providing new and differentiated services. Maipu provides a perfect solution to these challenges, helping the MAN to build a new-generation MAN, which integrates expansibility, high-operation efficiency, service flexibility and security.